End-to-End Testing for Line Differential Protection

Sughosh Kuber Features, Winter 2019 Features

Line differential protection is one of the most popular applications used for transmission line protection. Line differential protection works on the theory of Kirchhoff’s current law, where the magnitude of the current flowing into the line should be equal to the current flowing out of the line. For line differential protection, the zone of protection is defined by the location …

Fiber Optic Network Operation, Maintenance, and Restoration

Jim Hayes Features, Winter 2019 Features

All networks are susceptible to problems that affect communications. One consequence of a fiber optic system’s high bandwidth, long distance capability, and security is the extreme dependence of users on the non-stop operation of these systems. Because they can transmit large amounts of data long distances with immunity from signal degradation and extremely high reliability, these systems usually carry the …

R-GOOSE Applications in a Smart Grid

Dr. Alexander Apostolov Features, Winter 2019 Features

The high level of penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) is one of the main characteristics of the smart grid, and it requires a different approach to the protection of the grid. IEC 61850 is widely accepted around the world due to the significant benefits it provides compared with conventional hardwired solutions. However, many specialists in the industry still hesitate …